Assyrian Babylonian Advanced MathematicsAssyrian Babylonian Advanced Mathematics

Babylonian clay tablet YBC 7289 with annotations. The diagonal displays an approximation of the square root of 2 in four sexagesimal figures, which is about six decimal figures.

1 + 24/60 + 51/602 + 10/603 = 1.41421296... (Image by Bill Casselman)

Babylonian mathematics refers to any mathematics of the peoples of Mesopotamia (situated in present day Iraq), from the days of the early Sumerians to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. In contrast to the sparsity of sources in Egyptian mathematics, our knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is derived from some 400 clay tablets unearthed since the 1850s. Written in Cuneiform script, tablets were inscribed whilst the clay was moist, and baked hard in an oven or by the heat of the sun. The majority of recovered clay tablets date from 1800 to 1600 BC, and cover topics which include fractions, algebra, quadratic and cubic equations, the Pythagorean theorem, and the calculation of Pythagorean triples and possibly trigonometric functions (see Plimpton 322). The Babylonian tablet YBC 7289 gives an approximation to sqrt{2} accurate to nearly six decimal places.

Read more: http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Babylonian-mathematics

Assyrians Built the First Hydroponic PumpAssyrians Built the First Hydroponic Pump

Nebuchadnezzar, ruler of ancient Babylon in 600 BCE, built the hydroponically-engineered gardens called the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

The garden climbed upward in a staircase-style that resembled a small, lush tropical mountain. The water was pumped from a central source at the base of the palace by a mechanism called, Archimedes’ screw. The screw is made of one continuous rotating unit located inside a cylinder. When the handle is turned, it moves water from a lower level and deposits it into a higher level. Irrigation tunnels would have dispersed the water to the rest of the gardens.

Although pine pitch could have been used to extend the life of the material used to construct the screw, or as a water-proof coating, it was not necessary. Any water that leaked from one level of the screw to a lower level inside would have been scooped up by the lower level and continued to be moved along to the top of the cylinder for pouring.

The Sumerian Princes Puabi ShabadThe Sumerian Princes Puabi Shabad

Pu'abi or Shab'ad "The Sumerian princess" : Jewelry and headdress of gold and imported precious stones such as carnelian and lapis lazuli from India and Afghanistan. From the Royal Cemetery of Ur. Early Dynastic, ca. 2400 BC. The National Museum of Iraq - Baghdad

Traces of Assyrian Insignia Among Native American IndiansTraces of Assyrian Insignia Among Native American Indians

Top-Left: The Shawnee Creek Stone found in Oklahoma, U.S. in 1980 representing the insignia of Goddess Inanna.

Top-Right: Goddess Inanna (Dilmun)

Bottom-Left: An Assyrian woman, UR, 2650 BC.

Bottom-Right: Nez Perce American Indian baby, 1911

For more info read "A Common History of Assyrians and Native Americans" by Benjamin Daniali

http://www.assyriatimes.com/assyrian/knowledge/a-common-history-of-assyrians-and-native-americans/3401

Assyrian Circular Astrolabe ReconstructionAssyrian Circular Astrolabe Reconstruction

Assyrian Circular Astrolabe Reconstruction

Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography

Author: Wayne Horowitz
ISBN-10: 0931464994
ISBN-13: 978-0931464997

Assyrian Clay Model of a ChariotAssyrian Clay Model of a Chariot

This ancient clay model created in southern Mesopotamia about 1600-1900 B.C. depicts a four-wheeled chariot. A model is a representation, generally in miniature, to show the construction or appearance of something. Perhaps, this is the first model that was ever created.

Assyrian Love LetterAssyrian Love Letter

The Washington Post (1877-1954); May 3, 1908; ProQuest Historical Newspapers The Washington Post (1877-1990) pg.4

How Assyrians made Love

Letter Thousands of Years Old shown at Brooklyn Institute.

New York, May 2 –It seemed almost a breach of confidence. When Prof. Gabriel Oussami placed before the cold scrutiny of Brooklyn spectators last evening a love letter written thousands of years ago by an Assyrian swain to his lady fair. This swain lived in the city of Ashur, and was evidently provoked at the hard-hearted behavior of the young woman.

“Why was it, my beloved,” he engraved on a sheet of clay about an inch thick, “that you did not meet me as you said you would?” “Why did you bring sorrow to my heart? But, light of my life, could it be that you were ill?”

Assyrian youths wrote their letters in wedge like characters in soft clay and before dispatching them put them in the kiln. The professor exhibited an enlargement of the love note to the Brooklyn In statute of Arts and Sciences.

The letter was dug up several years ago by a party of German students who were exploring ruins in Assyria.

Assyrian Pet: The First Pet in HistoryAssyrian Pet: The First Pet in History

The Assyrian nation had dog pets before any other nation in this world!

Assyrian Scuba Diving: The First In HistoryAssyrian Scuba Diving: The First In History

Assyrians were the first to use scuba diving in their battles to pass marine obstacles such as rivers and lakes.

Assyrians Invented BeerAssyrians Invented Beer

Left: Alulu Tablet - a receipt for "best" beer 2050 BC from the city of Ur in Ancient Assyria. The earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. A prayer to the goddess Ninkasi known as "The Hymn to Ninkasi" serves as both a prayer as well as a method of remembering the recipe for beer.

Right: The logo of the Old Ale beer factory in England. Old ale is a term commonly applied to dark, malty beers in England.

The Nimrud LensThe Nimrud Lens

The Nimrud lens is a 3000 year old piece of rock crystal, which was unearthed by Austen Henry Layard at the Assyrian palace of Nimrud. It may have been used as a magnifying glass, or as a burning-glass to start fires by concentrating sunlight. Assyrian craftsmen made intricate engravings, and could have used such a lens in their work.

Italian scientist Giovanni Pettinato of the University of Rome has proposed that the lens was used by the ancient Assyrians as part of a telescope. This would explain why the ancient Assyrians knew so much about astronomy (see Babylonian astronomy). Experts on Assyrian archaeology are unconvinced, doubting that the optical quality of the lens is sufficient to be of much use. The ancient Assyrians saw the planet Saturn as a god surrounded by a ring of serpents, which Pettinato suggests was their interpretation of Saturn's rings as seen through a telescope. Other experts say that serpents occur frequently in Assyrian mythology, and note that there is no mention of a telescope in any of the many surviving Assyrian astronomical writings.

The Oldest Guitarist and Drummer were AssyrianThe Oldest Guitarist and Drummer were Assyrian

The oldest guitarist and drummer were Assyrians.

The Oldest Song in the WorldThe Oldest Song in the World

For fifteen years Prof. Anne Draffkorn Kilmer puzzled over clay tablets relating to music including some excavated in Syria by French archaeologists in the early 50's. The tablets from the Syrian city of ancient Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra) were about 3400 years old, had markings called cuneiform signs in the hurrian language (with borrowed akkadian terms) that provided a form of musical notation. One of the texts formed a complete cult hymn and is the oldest preserved song with notation in the world.

More info:

http://www.assyriatimes.com/assyrian/knowledge/the-oldest-song-in-the-world/3360

The Ziggurat of Ashur Compared to the Ziggurat of SacramentoThe Ziggurat of Ashur Compared to the Ziggurat of Sacramento

Above: Ziggurat of Ashur, the Assyrian temple. The date the sacred Ziggur of Ashur was built is the origin of the Assyrian New Year, currently 6760. Another symbol of Ištar was the “ziggurat” (the Mesopotamian temple tower), whose seven stages and mountain shape associated it with the seven-staged descent and ascent of the goddess. Remains of coloring on the ziggurat of the Assyrian capital city Dur-Šarruken show that each of its stages was painted in a different color (white, black, purple, blue, orange, gold, silver), probably symbolizing the seven planetary spheres (Venus, Saturn, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Sun, and Moon).

Below: The Ziggurat is a ten-story, stepped pyramidal office building and adjacent 5 story concrete parking structure located in West Sacramento, California on the shore of the Sacramento River. Designed to resemble the ancient Mesopotamian ziggurats, the building was built by The Money Store in 1997 and is currently leased by the California Department of General Services, DGS. It is the headquarters to DGS.

Assyrian Monotheism: Hammurabi PrayingAssyrian Monotheism: Hammurabi Praying

Hammurabi while praying.

The Assyrians have always been monotheistic worshiping one unique, and unseen God, Ashur. In this picture, no idol or statue is being seen because Hammurabi’s God was an unseen God, existing, kind, and severe when necessary.

You could also see the bowl in front of him, the container for the Holy water. The hand gesture is very similar to those of the Christians as if he is drawing a cross (Bershamele Sleewaa).

This statue by itself is a good answer to those Assyrians that think they could be communist or atheist but in the meantime stay being an Assyrian nationalist. Their way awfully contradicts with the monotheistic class of those ancient Assyrians.

Assyrian LabyrinthAssyrian Labyrinth

According to the international Labyrinth Society it is "a single path or unicursal tool for personal, psychological and spiritual transformation. Labyrinths are thought to enhance right brain activity."

In Christian tradition, labyrinths were walked by pilgrims and penitents. Pilgrims would walk a labyrinth at the end of a journey to contemplate their experiences and reach a spiritual state of closure, while penitents would shuffle on their knees through a labyrinth while praying.

Christian labyrinths tend to be laid out in four quadrants, suggestive of the shape of the cross. Several famous churches including Chartres Cathedral have labyrinths in their flooring.

Other religions also incorporate labyrinths into their spirituality. Buddhists walk labyrinths in silent meditation, and labyrinths are frequently laid out in sacred shapes which encourage contemplation and thoughtfulness. Spirals and meanders are two common shapes used in spiritual labyrinths, because these shapes are thought to hold immense spiritual power. These labyrinths are usually outdoors, and can appear in a variety of forms, including raked gravel labyrinths, or a series of complex canals.

Assyrian DaggerAssyrian Dagger

Assyrian Dagger (Mesopotamian, ca. 2550-2400 B.C.)

The Royal Assyrian ButterflyThe Royal Assyrian Butterfly

The Royal Assyrian belongs to the butterfly sub-family Heliconiinae of the family Nymphalidae.

The Isaiah Prophecy about AssyriaThe Isaiah Prophecy about Assyria

In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. The Assyrians will go to Egypt and the Egyptians to Assyria. The Egyptians and Assyrians will worship together. In that day Israel will be the third, along with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing on the earth. The Lord Almighty will bless them, saying, "Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance." (Isaiah 19:22-25)

Who are Assyrians?

Assyrians of today have often been mistaken for Syrians. Reason for this confusion seems to be- the average American has heard the name Syria. He knows there is a land by that name, but there is no country today to be named Assyria. What is even more odd is that many writers, until recently, were under the impression that no remnants of Assyrians existed today. Whenever an Assyrian presented himself as a living sample of descendants of Assyrians of pre-Christian era, he was met with wrinkled noses, shaking heads and forbidding eyes saying: there is no such thing as a living Assyrian. They have vanished from the face of the earth completely. But other researchers whose experience has been founded not on rumor but on their own quest, have acknowledged the claim to be justified.

Another painful point to comment upon is: - Assyrian of pre-Christian times have been pictured to be a cruel and an absolutely merciless people, whose heathenish heart had no room for mercy. The following should help to annul this type of opinion:

In the Louvre Museum of Paris, France, an visitor passing through the Assyrian department, cannot fail to see the following: On an obelisk of sandstone, approximately 5ft. in height, with engravings in bas relief and impressed inscriptions on all four sides; below the images, the observer will read the following translation on one of the four sides: "King Ashur Bani-Pal on his royal throne, captive kings of the defeated revolting coalition of subject nations are being admitted into his presence." One of the captive kings name give- is shown prostrated on the ground in front of the footstool. Other captive kings are waiting in the background in a row. The admonition of the emperor to the kings of his dominions reads: "Why do you want to start wars? I dislike bloodshed. Just pay your tribute and live in peace." he sent them to their lands with magnificent gifts of royal robes.

But thanks to the young science of Archeology for painstakingly digging in the sandy earth of Bet-Nahrain-Messa or Mesopotamia, today's Iraq, and releasing the secrets locked in the ground for thousands of years. The unexpected revelation was sensational. The inscriptions pressed on baked clay or sculpture in indestructible stone, still other engraved on metals and semi-precious stones shook the scientific world to its very foundations. The dazzling light of a new order of things would precipitate the millennia-old beliefs into chaotic confusion. In the place of barbarism, blinding light of culture shone. Where signs of heathenism were expected to be found, Psalms and Grand poetry in praise of the Lords of creation were sung. In place of mental crudity, epics of mature thinking were recited. The original Noah and his Ark were here too. Even, judging by time-laps, the original righteous Job was here, nursing his wounds without complaint. Mesopotamia, in Assyrian Bet-Nahrain meaning between two rivers. i.e., the land between two rivers-Tigris and Euphrates, is justifiably named by Dr. Wigram, English authority on the subject of Middle-Eastern nations. "The Crackle of Mankind". Dr. S.N. Kramer calls it "cradle of civilization". In this land around him and took a film hold of the helm of surrounding environment and made the existing conditions to serve his purpose.

He started the communal or city life, thus becoming the originator of civilization. To promote that venturesome step, he would need dwelling places for shelter from a scorching sun and the rigors of burning sandy winds; He would need fields to raise crops for sustenance of life; he would need implements to till his soil for fertility; He would have to domesticate animals for labor and for nourishment; He would need utensils for preparation of his food, and as he had a taste for art, he liked to decorate them with various colorful designs. He would need systems of irrigation and canalization; He would require tools for all kinds of labor, also for weaving material for clothing- for he didn't desire to cover his body with crude animal skin. Subsequently a code of law would be indispensable for the growing communities. He would have to build templates wherein to worship his magnanimous Creator. He would also need weapons to defend himself against man and beast.

Centuries later we see him building Places of baked bricks, stone, granite, alabaster and marble; We see him decorating the portals of his Palaces with images of human-headed winged bull - signifying reality of power. He continues to grow in wisdom, imagination and strength. We observe him building imposing templates of seven floors for various types of worship, also each representing the color of a different metal. We find him impressing his thoughts and the echo of his activities on baked earth and on several kinds of stones, metals and on semi precious jewels.

Subsequently, he lifts his head and directs his gaze toward the skies. Deep spaces challenge his venturesome spirit. As the outcome of his dream, we have the gift of the calendar that divides the time into years, months, weeks days hours, minutes and seconds. Today's astronomers say that the difference between what they arrived at and what modern man computes with his advanced machinery is only a few seconds in a year. The product of their astronomical science was also the knowledge to foretell eclipse of sun and the moon and periodical appearances of comets.

Let us enumerate a few item of the monumental legacy they bequeathed to mankind of all time:

  • The meaning of civilization, what does it need to build it.
  • Systems of irrigation
  • Systems of canalization Recognition of divine guidance
  • Art: Constructional, painting, decorating, sculpture, fashioning of ornaments in gold, silver, brass, copper, precious and semi-precious stones
  • Necessary house implements
  • Necessary home implements
  • Management of community centers
  • Commerce
  • Code of law
  • Crown of achievement - Art of writing. Progressive development: from Pico-graph to sign language; from sign language to alphabet
  • The wheel- revolutionary invention that has promoted mechanical technology to such a degree that without it the latter could not be thought of, for it would be totally paralyzed
  • Military tactics that surpassed those of the surrounding people by a very wide margin, hence, their successful conquests
  • Astronomy - product of which are knowledge of seven planets metaphorically recolonized for creative power, foretelling advent of eclipses and reappearances of comets as well as calendar
  • Magnifying glass discovered in the ruins of Ninveh, Assyrian last capital city
  • The bell. Scientific - metallurgical examination has established the fact the relative proportion of the two necessary elements indispensable for making well sounding bells are perfect. The two elements are copper and tin.
  • The division of circle into 360 degrees. Used for measurement for space and in machinery, also presumably in navigation
  • The Arch. Stupendous discovery on which the science of civil engineering depends so much
  • Remnants of an electric cell were discovered in the ruins of Ninveh; re-assembly of the parts did produce electric current
  • The finding that revealed Assyrians dealt in figures up to nine digits sustains the purpose of magnifying glass

We find that science of Archeology has totally capsized the verdict pronounced against Assyrian in ignorance by calling them vile names such as: savage, inhuman, merciless and what not; for it has firmly been established that their culture has enriched man's world enormously; that by their laborious and perseverant work they have not only accomplished wonders, but have been instrumental in helping man to expand the horizon of his attainments farther and farther, which shall become the undeniable fact that man was created by GOD IN HIS OWN IMAGE.

Assyrian Continuity

Civilization has always been under threat from the forces of barbarism. Without a strong arm to defend it, it can be destroyed.

From the beginning of the third millennium B.C. the civilization upon which our own is based took root in the plain of the Tigris and Euphrates in south Iraq. In the course of the next two millennia its influence spread out, towards Iran, Turkey, Syria, and the borders of Egypt. But small warring kingdom in the west and fierce migrating peoples in the north and east threatened the stability of the civilized order. Expanding Mesopotamian civilization needed a defender. It found it in the kingdom of Assyria.

The Assyrians spread their empire from western Iran to Egypt, from the Persian Gulf to central Asia Minor, sweeping away petty tyrannies, bringing security and good administration, and giving the region the beginnings of cultural unity.

Just before 600 B.C. the Assyrians were overthrown. But the peoples who Overthrew them had learned the arts of government from the Assyrians themselves, and the Assyrian imperial achievement passed as a heritage to the Persians, and then to Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic world.

In the final years of their empire, the Assyrians, tough farmers, many of them by now speaking Aramaic, were defending the area from Nineveh (Mosul in north Iraq) to Carchemish in south Turkey. What happened to them? We hear of no massacres, no deportations. They just stayed on where they had been, as Aramaic-speaking villagers. The area was still full of villages two hundred years later, when the Athenian Xenophon passed through.

Before 200 A.D. the area from south Turkey to the Zagros foothills was a major center of Aramaic-speaking Christians: the part of this area east of the Tigris was still called Assyria. Anyone who wants to dispute the ethnic link of this Christian community with the Assyrians of that area eight hundred years earlier has a major question to answer: where is the evidence that the old Assyrians left their homeland and that an entirely new group of peoples replaced them?

The Christian community in old Assyria, often miscalled Nestorians, showed themselves the most influential of the eastern churches. Their energy and evangelistic zeal spread Christianity across Asia into India and to the borders of China. Later, Mongol invasion and Muslim intolerance destroyed much of this, but the Christian Assyrians remained strong in their Near Eastern homeland. So they were until last century. The Assyrians then were what the Bible calls "a strong man armed". No one dared touch them. It was said that if a dog wore an Assyrian cap, their enemies would salute it.

But well-meaning interference by Western missionaries put the Assyrians themselves into a position in which they were no longer able to defend themselves. In 1843 a ruthless Kurdish Agha made a barbarous attack on their districts, massacring nearly 10,000 of the inhabitants and carrying off women and children as slaves. This was the first outrage of many. The settlement after the First World War held out new hope for the Assyrians and they were not short of promises. But the reality was another terrible massacre, this time in north Iraq in 1933. Since then the world seems content to see the Assyrians fade into history as just another forgotten minority.

The Assyrians still wait for justice. I hope that Dr. Sargon O. Dadesho's book will waken some consciences on this matter. I am honoured to have been invited to write this preface to his book.

Henry W.F. Saggs, B.D., M.Th., M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Department of Semitic Languages
University College, Cardiff, England

Assyrian Military Facts

Select excerpts from Karen Metz's "From Sumer to Rome".

In the 8th century B.C., when the entire Assyrian army included 150,000-200,000 men, a combat field army of 50,000 men would be equal to 5 modern American heavy divisions, or 8 Soviet field divisions.

When arrayed for battle, a field army occupied an area of 2,500 yards (almost 1.5 miles) across and 100 yards deep. After the fall of Rome, it was not until Napoloen's re-institution of conscription that armies of such a size would be mustered.

The Assyrians were the first to invent large cavalry squadrons.

A special logistics branch, the Musarkisus, was created to keep the army supplied with horses. It was able to obtain 3,000 horses a month for military use. Once again, it was not until Napoleon that such large amounts of horses would be systematically procdured for the army.

In a climate such as the Middle East, a soldier would need 3,402 calories a day and 70 grams of protein to sustain him, in addition to 9 quarts of water.

A ration of 3 pounds of wheat daily (or 150,000 pounds daily for a field army) would only provide 2,205 calories daily, insufficient for the needs of a soldier.

The "strategic mobility" of the Assyrian army, or their ability to project their military force over a given area, was 375,000 square miles. After Rome fell, no army exceeded this area until the American Civil War, when the use of railroads made troop movements easier.

In terms of efficiency of organization, no military staff (i.e. administrators, logistic officers and engineers) would reach the proficiency of the Assyrian or Roman military staffs until the German general staff of the 1870's.

The prototype of a modern soldier's equipment (helmet, body armor, boots [a particular Assyrian innovation], and backpack) was invented by ancient armies and disappeared for almost 1,000 years after the fall of the Roman Empire.

The killing power of an ancient composite bow (i.e. the accuracy, force, distance, and speed of deployment) was not matched until the introduction of the Prussian needle gun in 1871.

According to modern tests, the body armor, helmet, and shield of the Assyrians would have provided excellent protection against firearms until Napoleon. If the dispersion of field formations, inaccuracy of early firearms, and rates of fire are considered, the Assyrian soldier would have been safer on a battlefield in the 18th century than on an Ancient Near Eastern one.

Source: Richard A. Gabriel and Karen S. Metz. "From Sumer to Rome: The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies." New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Hammurabi’s Code of Laws

Click Here to read the complete list of the Hammurabi's Laws

Charles F. Horne: Hammurabi was the ruler who chiefly established the greatness of Babylon, the world’s first metropolis. Many relics of Hammurabi’s reign ([1795-1750 BC]) have been preserved, and today we can study this remarkable King....as a wise law-giver in his celebrated code. . .

By far the most remarkable of the Hammurabi records is his code of laws, the earliest-known example of a ruler proclaiming publicly to his people an entire body of laws, arranged in orderly groups, so that all men might read and know what was required of them. The code was carved upon a black stone monument, eight feet high, and clearly intended to be reared in public view. This noted stone was found in the year 1901, not in Babylon, but in a city of the Persian mountains, to which some later conqueror must have carried it in triumph. It begins and ends with addresses to the gods. Even a law code was in those days regarded as a subject for prayer, though the prayers here are chiefly cursings of whoever shall neglect or destroy the law.

The code then regulates in clear and definite strokes the organization of society. The judge who blunders in a law case is to be expelled from his judgeship forever, and heavily fined. The witness who testifies falsely is to be slain. Indeed, all the heavier crimes are made punishable with death. Even if a man builds a house badly, and it falls and kills the owner, the builder is to be slain. If the owner’s son was killed, then the builder’s son is slain. We can see where the Hebrews learned their law of “an eye for an eye." These grim retaliatory punishments take no note of excuses or explanations, but only of the fact--with one striking exception. An accused person was allowed to cast himself into “the river," the Euphrates. Apparently the art of swimming was unknown; for if the current bore him to the shore alive he was declared innocent, if he drowned he was guilty. So we learn that faith in the justice of the ruling gods was already firmly, though somewhat childishly, established in the minds of men.

Yet even with this earliest set of laws, as with most things Babylonian, we find ourselves dealing with the end of things rather than the beginnings. Hammurabi’s code was not really the earliest. The preceding sets of laws have disappeared, but we have found several traces of them, and Hammurabi’s own code clearly implies their existence. He is but reorganizing a legal system long established.

Claude Hermann Walter Johns: from the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910-1911

The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive without being exhaustive. The so-called “contracts,” including a great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts and, most important of all, the actual legal decisions given by the judges in the law courts, exist in thousands. Historical inscriptions, royal charters and rescripts, despatches, private letters and the general literature afford welcome supplementary information. Even grammatical and lexicographical works, intended solely to facilitate the study of ancient literature, contain many extracts or short sentences bearing on law and custom. The so-called “Sumerian Family Laws” are thus preserved. The discovery of the now celebrated Code of Hammurabi (hereinafter simply termed the Code) has, however, made a more systematic study possible than could have resulted from the classification and interpretation of the other material. Some fragments of a later code exist and have been published; but there still remain many points upon which we have no evidence.

This material dates from the earliest times down to the commencement of our era. The evidence upon a particular point may be very full at one period and almost entirely lacking at another. The Code forms the backbone of the skeleton sketch which is here reconstructed. The fragments of it which have been recovered from Assur-bani-pal’s library at Nineveh and later Babylonian copies show that it was studied, divided into chapters entitled Ninu ilu sirum from its opening words, and recopied for fifteen hundred years or more. The greater part of It remained in force, even through the Persian, Greek and Parthian conquests, which affected private life in Babylonia very little, and it survived to influence Syro-Roman and later Mahommedan law in Mesopotamia. The law and custom which preceded the Code we shall call “early,” that of the New Babylonian empire (as well as the Persian, Greek, &c.) “late.” The law in Assyria was derived from Babylonia but conserved early features long after they had disappeared elsewhere.

When the Semitic tribes settled in the cities of Babylonia, their tribal custom passed over into city law. The early history of the country is the story of a struggle for supremacy between the cities. A metropolis demanded tribute and military support from its subject cities but left their local cults and customs unaffected. The city rights and usages were respected by kings and conquerors alike.

As late as the accession of Assur-bani-pal and Samas-sum-yukin we find the Babylonians appealing to their city laws that groups of aliens to the number of twenty at a time were free to enter the city, that foreign women once married to Babylonian husbands could not be enslaved and that not even a dog that entered the city could be put to death untried.

The population of Babylonia was of many races from early times and intercommunication between the cities was incessant. Every city had a large number of resident aliens. This freedom of intercourse must have tended to assimilate custom. It was, however, reserved for the genius of Hammurabi to make Babylon his metropolis and weld together his vast empire by a uniform system of law.

Almost all trace of tribal custom has already disappeared from the law of the Code. It is state-law; - alike self-help, blood-feud, marriage by capture, are absent; though family solidarity, district responsibility, ordeal, the lex talionis, are primitive features that remain. The king is a benevolent autocrat, easily accessible to all his subjects, both able and willing to protect the weak against the highest-placed oppressor. The royal power, however, can only pardon when private resentment is appeased. The judges are strictly supervised and appeal is allowed. The whole land is covered with feudal holdings, masters of the levy, police, &c. There is a regular postal system. The pax Babylonica is so assured that private individuals do not hesitate to ride in their carriage from Babylon to the coast of the Mediterranean. The position of women is free and dignified.

The Code did not merely embody contemporary custom or conserve ancient law. It is true that centuries of law-abiding and litigious habitude had accumulated in the temple archives of each city vast stores of precedent in ancient deeds and the records of judicial decisions, and that intercourse had assimilated city custom. The universal habit of writing and perpetual recourse to written contract even more modified primitive custom and ancient precedent. Provided the parties could agree, the Code left them free to contract as a rule. Their deed of agreement was drawn up in the temple by a notary public, and confirmed by an oath “by god and the king.” It was publicly sealed and witnessed by professional witnesses, as well as by collaterally interested parties. The manner in which it was thus executed may have been sufficient security that its stipulations were not impious or illegal. Custom or public opinion doubtless secured that the parties would not agree to wrong. In case of dispute the judges dealt first with the contract. They might not sustain it, but if the parties did not dispute it, they were free to observe it. The judges’ decision might, however, be appealed against. Many contracts contain the proviso that in case of future dispute the parties would abide by “the decision of the king.” The Code made known, in a vast number of cases, what that decision would be, and many cases of appeal to the king were sent back to the judges with orders to decide in accordance with it. The Code itself was carefully and logically arranged and the order of its sections was conditioned by their subject-matter. Nevertheless the order is not that of modern scientific treatises, and a somewhat different order from both is most convenient for our purpose.

The Code contemplates the whole population as falling into three classes, the amelu, the muskinu and the ardu. The amelu was a patrician, the man of family, whose birth, marriage and death were registered, of ancestral estates and full civil rights. He had aristocratic privileges and responsibilities, the right to exact retaliation for corporal injuries, and liability to heavier punishment for crimes and misdemeanours, higher fees and fines to pay. To this class belonged the king and court, the higher officials, the professions and craftsmen. The term became in time a mere courtesy title but originally carried with it standing. Already in the Code, when status is not concerned, it is used to denote “any one.” There was no property qualification nor does the term appear to be racial. It is most difficult to characterize the muskinu exactly. The term came in time to mean “a beggar” and with that meaning has passed through Aramaic and Hebrew into many modern languages; but though the Code does not regard him as necessarily poor, he may have been landless. He was free, but had to accept monetary compensation for corporal injuries, paid smaller fees and fines, even paid less offerings to the gods. He inhabited a separate quarter of the city. There is no reason to regard him as specially connected with the court, as a royal pensioner, nor as forming the bulk of the population. The rarity of any reference to him in contemporary documents makes further specification conjectural. The ardu was a slave, his master’s chattel, and formed a very numerous class. He could acquire property and even hold other slaves. His master clothed and fed him, paid his doctor’s fees, but took all compensation paid for injury done to him. His master usually found him a slave-girl as wife (the children were then born slaves), often set him up in a house (with farm or business) and simply took an annual rent of him. Otherwise he might marry a freewoman (the children were then free), who might bring him a dower which his master could not touch, and at his death one-half of his property passed to his master as his heir. He could acquire his freedom by purchase from his master, or might be freed and dedicated to a temple, or even adopted, when he became an amelu and not a muskinu. Slaves were recruited by purchase abroad, from captives taken in war and by freemen degraded for debt or crime. A slave often ran away; if caught, the captor was bound to restore him to his master, and the Code fixes a reward of two shekels which the owner must pay the captor. It was about one-tenth of the average value. To detain, harbour, &c., a slave was punished by death. So was an attempt to get him to leave the city. A slave bore an identification mark, which could only be removed by a surgical operation and which later consisted of his owner’s name tattooed or branded on the arm. On the great estates in Assyria and its subject provinces were many serfs, mostly of subject race, settled captives, or quondam slaves, tied to the soil they cultivated and sold with the estate but capable of possessing land and property of their own. There is little trace of serfs in Babylonia, unless the muskinu be really a serf.

The god of a city was originally owner of its land, which encircled it with an inner ring of irrigable arable land and an outer fringe of pasture, and the citizens were his tenants. The god and his viceregent, the king, had long ceased to disturb tenancy, and were content with fixed dues in naturalia, stock, money or service. One of the earliest monuments records the purchase by a king of a large estate for his son, paying a fair market price and adding a handsome honorarium to the many owners in costly garments, plate, and precious articles of furniture. The Code recognizes complete private ownership in land, but apparently extends the right to hold land to votaries, merchants (and resident aliens?). But all land was sold subject to its fixed charges. The king, however, could free land from these charges by charter, which was a frequent way of rewarding those who deserved well of the state. It is from these charters that we learn nearly all we know of the obligations that lay upon land. The state demanded men for the army and the corvee as well as dues in kind. A definite area was bound to find a bowman together with his linked pikeman (who bore the shield for both) and to furnish them with supplies for the campaign. This area was termed “a bow” as early as the 8th century B.C., but the usage was much earlier. Later, a horseman was due from certain areas. A man was only bound to serve so many (six?) times, but the land had to find a man annually. The service was usually discharged by slaves and serfs, but the amelu (and perhaps the muskenu) went to war. The “bows” were grouped in tens and hundreds. The corvee was less regular. The letters of Hammurabi often deal with claims to exemption. Religious officials and shepherds in charge of flocks were exempt. Special liabilities lay upon riparian owners to repair canals, bridges, quays, &c. The state claimed certain proportions of all crops, stock, &c. The king’s messengers could commandeer any subject’s property, giving a receipt. Further, every city had its own octroi duties, customs, ferry dues, highway and water rates. The king had long ceased to be, if he ever was, owner of the land. He had his own royal estates, his private property and dues from all his subjects. The higher officials had endowments and official residences. The Code regulates the feudal position of certain classes. They held an estate from the king consisting of house, garden, field, stock and a salary, on condition of personal service on the king’s errand. They could not delegate the service on pain of death. When ordered abroad they could nominate a son, if capable, to hold the benefice and carry on the duty. If there was no son capable, the state put in a locum tenens, but granted one-third to the wife to maintain herself and children. The benefice was inalienable, could not be sold, pledged, exchanged, sublet, devised or diminished. Other land was held of the state for rent. Ancestral estate was strictly tied to the family. If a holder would sell, the family had the right of redemption and there seems to have been no time-limit to its exercise.

The temple occupied a most important position. It received from its estates, from tithes and other fixed dues, as well as from the sacrifices (a customary share) and other offerings of the faithful, vast amounts of all sorts of naturalia; besides money and permanent gifts. The larger temples had many officials and servants. Originally, perhaps, each town clustered round one temple, and each head of a family had a right to minister there and share its receipts. As the city grew, the right to so many days a year at one or other shrine (or its “gate") descended in certain families and became a species of property which could be pledged, rented or shared within the family, but not alienated. In spite of all these demands, however, the temples became great granaries and store-houses; as they also were the city archives. The temple held its responsibilities. If a citizen was captured by the enemy and could not ransom himself the temple of his city must do so. To the temple came the poor farmer to borrow seed corn or supplies for harvesters, &c.--advances which he repaid without interest. The king’s power over the temple was not proprietary but administrative. He might borrow from it but repaid like other borrowers. The tithe seems to have been the composition for the rent due to the god for his land. It is not clear that all lands paid tithe, perhaps only such as once had a special connexion with the temple.

The Code deals with a class of persons devoted to the service of a god, as vestals or hierodules. The vestals were vowed to chastity, lived together in a great nunnery, were forbidden to open or enter a tavern, and together with other votaries had many privileges.

The Code recognizes many ways of disposing of property--sale, lease, barter, gift, dedication, deposit, loan, pledge, all of which were matters of contract. Sale was the delivery of the purchase (in the case of real estate symbolized by a staff, a key, or deed of conveyance) in return for the purchase money, receipts being given for both. Credit, if given, was treated as a debt, and secured as a loan by the seller to be repaid by the buyer, fr which he gave a bond. The Code admits no claim unsubstantiated by documents or the oath of witnesses. A buyer had to convince himself of the seller’s title. If he bought (or received on deposit) from a minor or a slave without power of attorney, he would be executed as a thief. If the goods were stolen and the rightful owner reclaimed them, he had to prove his purchase by producing the seller and the deed of sale or witnesses to it. Otherwise he would be adjudged a thief and die. If he proved his purchase, he had to give up the property but had his remedy against the seller or, if he had died, could reclaim five-fold from his estate. A man who bought a slave abroad, might find that he had been stolen or captured from Babylonia, and he had to restore him to his former owner without profit. If he bought property belonging to a feudal holding, or to a ward in chancery, he had to return it and forfeit what he gave for it as well. He could repudiate the purchase of a slave attacked by the bennu sickness within the month (later, a hundred days), and had a female slave three days on approval. A defect of title or undisclosed liability would invalidate the sale at any time.

Landowners frequently cultivated their land themselves but might employ a husbandman or let it. The husbandman was bound to carry out the proper cultivation, raise an average crop and leave the field in good tilth. In case the crop failed the Code fixed a statutory return. Land might be let at a fixed rent when the Code enacted that accidental loss fell on the tenant. If let on share-profit, the landlord and tenant shared the loss proportionately to their stipulated share of profit. If the tenant paid his rent and left the land in good tilth, the landlord could not interfere nor forbid subletting. Waste land was let to reclaim, the tenant being rent-free for three years and paying a stipulated rent in the fourth year. If the tenant neglected to reclaim the land the Code enacted that he must hand it over in good tilth and fixed a statutory rent. Gardens or plantations were let in the same ways and under the same conditions; but for date-groves four years’ free tenure was allowed. The metayer system was in vogue, especially on temple lands. The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the watering-machines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and fodder for the cattle. The tenant, or steward, usually had other land of his own. If he stole the seed, rations or fodder, the Code enacted that his fingers should be cut off. If he appropriated or sold the implements, impoverished or sublet the cattle, he was heavily fined and in default of payment might be condemned to be torn to pieces by the cattle on the field. Rent was as contracted.

Irrigation was indispensable. If the irrigator neglected to repair his dyke, or left his runnel open and caused a flood, he had to make good the damage done to his neighbours’ crops, or be sold with his family to pay the cost. The theft of a watering-machine, water-bucket or other agricultural implement was heavily fined.

Houses were let usually for the year, but also for longer terms, rent being paid in advance, half-yearly. The contract generally specified that the house was in good repair, and the tenant was bound to keep it so. The woodwork, including doors and door frames, was removable, and the tenant might bring and take away his own. The Code enacted that if the landlord would re-enter before the term was up, he must remit a fair proportion of the rent. Land was leased for houses or other buildings to be built upon it, the tenant being rent-free for eight or ten years; after which the building came into the landlord’s possession.

Despite the multitude of slaves, hired labour was often needed, especially at harvest. This was matter of contract, and the hirer, who usually paid in advance, might demand a guarantee to fulfil the engagement. Cattle were hired for ploughing, working the watering-machines, carting, threshing, etc. The Code fixed a statutory wage for sowers, ox-drivers, field-labourers, and hire for oxen, asses, &c.

There were many herds and flocks. The flocks were committed to a shepherd who gave receipt for them and took them out to pasture. The Code fixed him a wage. He was responsible for all care, must restore ox for ox, sheep for sheep, must breed them satisfactorily. Any dishonest use of the flock had to be repaid ten-fold, but loss by disease or wild beasts fell on the owner. The shepherd made good all loss due to his neglect. If he let the flock feed on a field of corn he had to pay damages four-fold; if he turned them into standing corn when they ought to have been folded he paid twelve-fold.

In commercial matters, payment in kind was still common, though the contracts usually stipulate for cash, naming the standard expected, that of Babylon, Larsa, Assyria, Carchemish, &c. The Code enacted, however, that a debtor must be allowed to pay in produce according to statutory scale. If a debtor had neither money nor crop, the creditor-must not refuse goods.

Debt was secured on the person of the debtor. Distraint on a debtor’s corn was forbidden by the Code; not only must the creditor give it back, but his illegal action forfeited his claim altogether. An unwarranted seizure for debt was fined, as was the distraint of a working ox. The debtor being seized for debt could nominate as mancipium or hostage to work off the debt, his wife, a child, or slave. The creditor could only hold a wife or child three years as mancipium. If the mancipium died a natural death while in the creditor’s possession no claim could lie against the latter; but if he was the cause of death by cruelty, he had to give son for son, or pay for a slave. He could sell a slave-hostage, unless she were a slave-girl who had borne her master children. She had to be redeemed by her owner.

The debtor could also pledge his property, and in contracts often pledged a field house or crop. The Code enacted, however, that the debtor should always take the crop himself and pay the creditor from it. If the crop failed, payment was deferred and no interest could be charged for that year. If the debtor did not cultivate the field himself he had to pay for the cultivation, but if the cultivation was already finished he must harvest it himself and pay his debt from the crop. If the cultivator did not get a crop this would not cancel his contract. Pledges were often made where the intrinsic value of the article was equivalent to the amount of the debt; but antichretic pledge was more common, where the profit of the pledge was a set-off against the interest of the debt. The whole property of the debtor might be pledged as security for the payment of the debt, without any of it coming into the enjoyment of the creditor. Personal guarantees were often given that the debtor would repay or the guarantor become liable himself.

Trade was very extensive. A common way of doing business was for a merchant to entrust goods or money to a travelling agent, who sought a market for his goods. The caravans travelled far beyond the limits of the empire. The Code insisted that the agent should inventory and give a receipt for all that he received. No claim could be made for anything not so entered. Even if the agent made no profit he was bound to return double what he had received, if he made poor profit he had to make up the deficiency; but he was not responsible for loss by robbery or extortion on his travels. On his return, the principal must give a receipt for what was handed over to him. Any false entry or claim on the agent’s part was penalised three-fold, on the principal’s part six-fold. In normal cases profits were divided according to contract, usually equally.

A considerable amount of forwarding was done by the caravans. The carrier gave a receipt for the consignment, took all responsibility and exacted a receipt on delivery. If he defaulted he paid five-fold. He was usually paid in advance. Deposit, especially warehousing of grain, was charged for at one-sixtieth. The warehouseman took all risks, paid double for all shortage, but no claim could be made unless be had given a properly witnessed receipt. Water traffic on the Euphrates and canals was early very considerable. Ships, whose tonnage was estimated at the amount of grain they could carry, were continually hired for the a transport of all kinds of goods. The Code fixes the price for building and insists on the builder’s giving a year’s guarantee of seaworthiness. It fixes the hire of ship and of crew. The captain was responsible for the freight and the ship; he had to replace all loss. Even if he refloated the ship he had to pay a fine of half its value for sinking it. In the case of collision the boat under way was responsible for damages to the boat at anchor. The Code also regulated the liquor traffic, fixing a fair price for beer and forbidding the connivance of the tavern-keeper (a female!) at disorderly conduct or treasonable assembly, under pain of death. She was to hale the offenders to the palace, which implied an efficient and accessible police system.

Payment through a banker or by written draft against deposit was frequent. Bonds to pay were treated as negotiable. Interest a was rarely charged on advances by the temple or wealthy land-owners for pressing needs, but this may have been part of the metayer system. The borrowers may have been tenants. Interest was charged at very high rates for overdue loans of this kind. Merchants (and even temples in some cases) made ordinary business loans, charging from 20 to 30%.

Marriage retained the form of purchase, but was essentially a contract to be man and wife together. The marriage of young people was usually arranged between the relatives, the bride- groom’s father providing the bride-price, which with other presents the suitor ceremonially presented to the bride’s father. This bride-price was usually handed over by her father to the bride on her marriage, and so came back into the bridegroom’s possession, along with her dowry, which was her portion as a daughter. The bride-price varied much, according to the position of the parties, but was in excess of that paid for a slave. The Code enacted that if the father does not, after accepting a man’s presents, give him his daughter, he, must return the presents doubled. Even if his decision was brought about by libel on the part of the suitor’s friend this was done, and the Code enacted that the faithless friend should not marry the girl. If a suitor changed his mind, he forfeited the presents. The dowry might include real estate, but generally consisted of personal effects and household furniture. It remained the wife’s for life, descending to her children, if any; otherwise returning to her family, when the husband could deduct the bride-price if it had not been given to her, or return it, if it had. The marriage ceremony included joining of hands and the utterance of some formula of acceptance on the part of the bridegroom, as “I am the son of nobles, silver and gold shall fill thy lap, thou shalt be my wife, I will be thy husband. Like the fruit of a garden I will give thee offspring.” It must be performed by a freeman.

The marriage contract, without which the Code ruled that the woman was no wife, usually stated the consequences to which each party was liable for repudiating the other. These by no means necessarily agree with the Code. Many conditions might be inserted: as that the wife should act as maidservant to her mother-in-law, or to a first wife. The married couple formed a unit as to external responsibility, especially for debt. The man was responsible for debts contracted by his wife, even before her marriage, as well as for his own; but he could use her as a mancipium. Hence the Code allowed a proviso to be inserted in the marriage contract, that the wife should not be seized for her husband’s prenuptial debts; but enacted that then he was not responsible for her prenuptial debts, and, in any case, that both together were responsible for all debts contracted after marriage. A man might make his wife a settlement by deed of gift, which gave her a life interest in part of his property, and he might reserve to her the right to bequeath it to a favourite child, but she could in no case leave it to her family. Although married she always remained a member of her father’s house--she is rarely named wife of A, usually daughter of B, or mother of C.

Divorce was optional with the man, but he had to restore the dowry and, if the wife had borne him children, she had the custody of them. He had then to assign her the income of field, or garden, as well as goods, to maintain herself and children until they grew up. She then shared equally with them in the allowance (and apparently in his estate at his death) and was free to marry again. If she had no children, he returned her the dowry and paid her a sum equivalent to the bride-price, or a mina of silver, if there had been none. The latter is the forfeit usually named in the contract for his repudiation of her.

If she had been a bad wife, the Code allowed him to send her away, while he kept the children and her dowry; or he could degrade her to the position of a slave in his own house, where she would have food and clothing. She might bring an action against him for cruelty and neglect and, if she proved her case, obtain a judicial separation, taking with her her dowry. No other punishment fell on the man. If she did not prove her case, but proved to be a bad wife, she was drowned. If she were left without maintenance during her husband’s involuntary absence, she could cohabit with another man, but must return to her husband if he came back, the children of the second union remaining with their own father. If she had maintenance, a breach of the marriage tie was adultery. Wilful desertion by, or exile of, the husband dissolved the marriage, and if he came back he had no claim on her property; possibly not on his own.

As a widow, the wife took her husband’s place in the family, living on in his house and bringing up the children. She could only remarry with judicial consent, when the judge was bound to inventory the deceased’s estate and hand it over to her and her new husband in trust for the children. They could not alienate a single utensil. If she did not remarry, she lived on in her husband’s house and took a child’s share on the division of his estate, when the children had grown up. She still retained her dowry and any settlement deeded to her by her husband. This property came to her children. If she had remarried, all her children shared equally in her dowry, but the first husband’s gift fell to his children or to her selection among them, if so empowered.

Monogamy was the rule, and a childless wife might give her husband a maid (who was no wife) to bear him children, who were reckoned hers. She remained mistress of her maid and might degrade her to slavery again for insolence, but could not sell her if she had borne her husband children. If the wife did this, the Code did not allow the husband to take a concubine. If she would not, he could do so. The concubine was a wife, though not of the same rank; the first wife had no power over her. A concubine was a free woman, was often dowered for marriage and her children were legitimate. She could only be divorced on the same conditions as a wife. If a wife became a chronic invalid, the husband was bound to maintain her in the home they bad made together, unless she preferred to take her dowry and go back to her father’s house; but he was free to remarry. In all these cases the children were legitimate and legal heirs.

There was, of course, no hindrance to a man having children by a slave girl. These children were free, in any case, and their mother could not be sold, though she might be pledged, and she was free on her master’s death. These children could be legitimized by their father’s acknowledgment before witnesses, and were often adopted. They then ranked equally in sharing their father’s estate, but if not adopted, the wife’s children divided and took first choice.

Vestal virgins were not supposed to have children, yet they could and often did marry. The Code contemplated that such a wife would give a husband a maid as above. Free women might marry slaves and be dowered for the marriage. The children were free, and at the slave’s death the wife took her dowry and half what she and her husband had acquired in wedlock for self and children; the master taking the other half as his slave’s heir.

A father had control over his children till their marriage. He had a right to their labour in return for their keep. He might hire them out and receive their wages, pledge them for debt, even sell them outright. Mothers had the same rights in the absence of the father; even elder brothers when both parents were dead. A father had no claim on his married children for support, but they retained a right to inherit on his death.

The daughter was not only in her father’s power to be given in marriage, but he might dedicate her to the service of some god as a vestal or a hierodule; or give her as a concubine. She had no choice in these matters, which were often decided in her childhood. A grown-up daughter might wish to become a votary, perhaps in preference to an uncongenial marriage, and it seems that her father could not refuse her wish. In all these cases the father might dower her. If he did not, on his death the brothers were bound to do so, giving her a full child’s share if a wife, a concubine or a vestal, but one-third of a child’s share if she were a hierodule or a Marduk priestess. The latter had the privilege of exemption from state dues and absolute disposal of her property. All other daughters had only a life interest in their dowry, which reverted to their family, if childless, or went to their children if they had any. A father might, however, execute a deed granting a daughter power to leave her property to a favourite brother or sister. A daughter’s estate was usually managed for her by her brothers, but if they did not satisfy her, she could appoint a steward. If she married, her husband managed it.

The son also appears to have received his share on marriage, but did not always then leave his father’s house; he might bring his wife there. This was usual in child marriages.

Adoption was very common, especially where the father (or mother) was childless or had seen all his children grow up and marry away. The child was then adopted to care for the parents’ old age. This was done by contract, which usually specified what the parent had to leave and what maintenance was expected. The real children, if any, were usually consenting parties to an arrangement which cut off their expectations. They even, in some cases, found the estate for the adopted child who was to relieve them of a care. If the adopted child failed to carry out the filial duty the contract was annulled in the law courts. Slaves were often adopted and if they proved unfilial were reduced to slavery again.

A craftsman often adopted a son to learn the craft. He profited by the son’s labour. If he failed to teach his son the craft, that son could prosecute him and get the contract annulled. This was a form of apprenticeship, and it is not clear that the apprentice had any filial relation.

A man who adopted a son, and afterwards married and had a family of his own, could dissolve the contract but must give the adopted child one-third of a child’s share in goods, but no real estate. That could only descend in the family to which he had ceased to belong. Vestals frequently adopted daughters, usually other vestals, to care for their old age.

Adoption had to be with consent of the real parents, who usually executed a deed making over the child, who thus ceased to have any claim upon them. But vestals, hierodules, certain palace officials and slaves had no rights over their children and could raise no obstacle. Foundlings and illegitimate children had no parents to object. If the adopted child discovered his true parents and wanted to return to them, his eye or tongue was torn out. An adopted child was a full heir, the contract might even assign him the position of eldest son. Usually he was residuary legatee.

All legitimate children shared equally in the father’s estate at his death, reservation being made of a bride-price for an unmarried son, dower for a daughter or property deeded to favourite children by the father. There was no birthright attaching to the position of eldest son, but he usually acted as executor and after considering what each had already received equalized the shares. He even made grants in excess to the others from his own share. When there were two mothers, the two families shared equally in the father’s estate until later times when the first family took two-thirds. Daughters, in the absence of sons, had sons’ rights. Children also shared their own mother’s property, but had no share in that of a stepmother.

A father could disinherit a son in early times without restriction, but the Code insisted upon judicial consent and that only for repeated unfilial conduct. In early times the son who denied his father had his front hair shorn, a slave-mark put on him, and could be sold as a slave; while if he denied his mother he had his front hair shorn, was driven round the city as an example and expelled his home, but not degraded to slavery.

Adultery was punished with the death of both parties by drowning, but if the husband was willing to pardon his wife, the king might intervene to pardon the paramour. For incest with his own mother, both were burned to death; with a stepmother, the man was disinherited; with a daughter, the man was exiled; with a daughter-in-law, he was drowned; with a son’s betrothed, he was fined. A wife who for her lover’s sake procured her husband’s death was gibbeted. A betrothed girl, seduced by her prospective father-in-law, took her dowry and returned to her family, and was free to marry as she chose.

In the criminal law the ruling principle was the lex talionis. Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, limb for limb was the penalty for assault upon an amelu. A sort of symbolic retaliation was the punishment of the offending member, seen in the cutting off the hand that struck a father or stole a trust; in cutting off the breast of a wet-nurse who substituted a changeling for the child entrusted to her; in the loss of the tongue that denied father or mother (in the Elamite contracts the same penalty was inflicted for perjury); in the loss of the eye that pried into forbidden secrets. The loss of the surgeon’s hand that caused loss of life or limb or the brander’s hand that obliterated a slave’s identification mark, are very similar. The slave, who struck a freeman or denied his master, lost an ear, the organ of hearing and symbol of obedience. To bring another into danger of death by false accusation was punished by death. To cause loss of liberty or property by false witness was punished by the penalty the perjurer sought to bring upon another.

The death penalty was freely awarded for theft and other crimes regarded as coming under that head, for theft involving entrance of palace or temple treasury, for illegal purchase from minor or slave, for selling stolen goods or receiving the same, for common theft in the open (in default of multiple restoration) or receiving the same, for false claim to goods, for kidnapping, for assisting or harbouring fugitive slaves, for detaining or appropriating same, for brigandage, for fraudulent sale of drink, for disorderly conduct of tavern, for delegation of personal service, for misappropriating the levy, for oppression of feudal holders, for causing death of a householder by bad building. The manner of death is not specified in these cases. This death penalty was also fixed for such conduct as placed another in danger of death. A specified form of death penalty occurs in the following cases:-gibbeting (on the spot where crime was committed) for burglary, later also for encroaching on the king’s highway, for getting a slave-brand obliterated, for procuring husband’s death; burning for incest with own mother, for vestal entering or opening tavern, for theft at fire (on the spot); drowning for adultery, rape of betrothed maiden, bigamy, bad conduct as wife, seduction of daughter-in-law.

A curious extension of the talio is the death of creditor’s son for his father’s having caused the death of debtor’s son as mancipium; of builder’s son for his father’s causing the death of house-owner’s son by building the house badly; the death of a man’s daughter because her father caused the death of another man’s daughter.

The contracts naturally do not concern such criminal cases as the above, as a rule, but marriage contracts do specify death by strangling, drowning, precipitation from a tower or pinnacle of the temple or by the iron sword for a wife’s repudiation of her husband. We are quite without evidence as to the executive in all these cases.

Exile was inflicted for incest with a daughter; disinheritance for incest with a stepmother or for repeated unfilial conduct. Sixty strokes of an ox-hide scourge were awarded for a brutal assault on a superior, both being amelu. Branding (perhaps the equivalent of degradation to slavery) was the penalty for slander of a married woman or vestal. Deprivation of office in perpetuity fell upon the corrupt judge. Enslavement befell the extravagant wife and unfilial children. Imprisonment was common, but is not recognized by the Code.

The commonest of all penalties was a fine. This is awarded by the Code for corporal injuries to a muskinu or slave (paid to his master); for damages done to property, for breach of contract. The restoration of goods appropriated, illegally bought or damaged by neglect, was usually accompanied by a fine, giving it the form of multiple restoration. This might be double, treble, fourfold, fivefold, sixfold, tenfold, twelvefold, even thirtyfold, according to the enormity of the offence.

The Code recognized the importance of intention. A man who killed another in a quarrel must swear he did not do so intentionally, and was then only fined according to the rank of the deceased. The Code does not say what would be the penalty of murder, but death is so often awarded where death is caused that we can hardly doubt that the murderer was put to death. If the assault only led to injury and was unintentional, the assailant in a quarrel had to pay the doctor’s fees. A brander, induced to remove a slave’s identification mark, could swear to his ignorance and was free. The owner of an ox which gored a man on the street was only responsible for damages if, the ox was known by him to be vicious, even if it caused death. If the mancipium died a natural death under the creditor’s hand, the creditor was scot free. In ordinary cases responsibility was not demanded for accident or for more than proper care. Poverty excused bigamy on the part of a deserted wife.

On the other hand carelessness and neglect were severely punished, as in the case of the unskilful physician, if it led to loss of life or limb his hands were cut off, a slave had to be replaced, the loss of his eye paid for to half his value; a veterinary surgeon who caused the death of an ox or ass paid quarter value; a builder, whose careless workmanship caused death, lost his life or paid for it by the death of his child, replaced slave or goods, and in any case had to rebuild the house or make good any damages due to defective building and repair the defect as well. The boat-builder had to make good any defect of construction or damage due to it for a year’s warranty.

Throughout the Code respect is paid to status.

Suspicion was not enough. The criminal must be taken in the act, e.g. the adulterer, ravisher, &c. A man could not be convicted of theft unless the goods were found in his possession.

In the case of a lawsuit the plaintiff preferred his own plea. There is no trace of professional advocates, but the plea had to be in writing and the notary doubtless assisted in the drafting of it. The judge saw the plea, called the other parties before him and sent for the witnesses. If these were not at hand he might adjourn the case for their production, specifying a time up to six months. Guarantees might be entered into to produce the witnesses on a fixed day. The more important cases, especially those involving life and death, were tried by a bench of judges. With the judges were associated a body of elders, who shared in the decision, but whose exact function is not yet clear. Agreements, declarations and non-contentious cases are usually witnessed by one judge and twelve elders.

Parties and witnesses were put on oath. The penalty for the false witness was usually that which would have been awarded the convicted criminal. In matters beyond the knowledge of men, as the guilt or innocence of an alleged wizard or a suspected wife, the ordeal by water was used. The accused jumped into the sacred river, and the innocent swam while the guilty drowned. The accused could clear himself by oath where his own knowledge was alone available. The plaintiff could swear to his loss by brigands, as to goods claimed, the price paid for a slave purchased abroad or the sum due to him. But great stress was laid on the production of written evidence. It was a serious thing to lose a document. The judges might be satisfied of its existence and terms by the evidence of the witnesses to it, and then issue an order that whenever found it should be given up. Contracts annulled were ordered to be broken. The court might go a journey to view the property and even take with them the sacred symbols on which oath was made.

The decision given was embodied in writing, sealed and witnessed by the judges, the elders, witnesses and a scribe. Women might act in all these capacities. The parties swore an oath, embodied in the document, to observe its stipulations. Each took a copy and one was held by the scribe to be stored in the archives.

Appeal to the king was allowed and is well attested. The judges at Babylon seem to have formed a superior court to those of provincial towns, but a defendant might elect to answer the charge before the local court and refuse to plead at Babylon.

Finally, it may be noted that many immoral acts, such as the use of false weights, lying, &c., which could not be brought into court, are severely denounced in the Omen Tablets as likely to bring the offender into “the hand of God” as opposed to “the hand of the king."

Bibliography.

Contracts in general: Oppert and Menant, Documents juridiques de l’Assyrie et de la Chaldee (Paris, 1877); J. Kohler and F. E. Peiser, Aus dem Babylonischen Rechtsleben (Leipzig, 1890 ff.); F. E. Peiser, Babylonische Vertrage (Berlin, 1890), Keilinschrifiliche Actenstucke (Berlin, 1889); Br. Meissner, Beitrage zur altbabylonischen Privatrecht (Leipzig, 1893); F. E. Peiser, “Texte juristischen und geschaftlichen Inhalts,” vol. iv. of Schrader’s Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek (Berlin, 1896); C. H. W. Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents relating to the Transfer of Property (3 vols., Cambridge, 1898); H. Radau, Early Babylonian History (New York, 1900); C. H. W. Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters (Edinburgh, 1904).

For editions of texts and the innumerable articles in scientific journals see the bibliographies and references in the above works. “The Code of Hammurabi,” Editio princeps, by V. Scheil in tome iv. of the Textes Elamites-Semitiques of the Memoires de la delegation en Perse (Paris, 1902); H. Winckler, “Die Gesetze Hammurabis Konigs von Babylon um 2250 v. Chr.” Der alte Orient, iv. Jahrgang, Heft 4; D. H. Muller, Die Gesetze Hammurabis (Vienna, 1903); J. Kohler and F. E. Peiser, Hammurabis Gesetz (Leipzig, 1904); R. F. Harper, The Code of Hammurabi, King, of Babylon about 2250 B.C. (Chicago, 1904); S. A. Cook, The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi (London, 1903).

Rev. Claude Hermann Walter Johns, M.A. Litt.D.

Master of St. Catharine’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Assyriology, Queens’ College, Cambridge, and King’s College, London. Author of Assyrian Deeds and Documents of the 7th Century B.C.; The Oldest Code of Laws; Babylonian and Assyrian Laws; Contracts and Letters;etc.

Assyrians in The Bible

And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. Genesis (2:14)

Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, Genesis (10:11)

And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city. Genesis (10:12)

And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: and he died in the presence of all his brethren. Genesis (25:18)

And Pul the king of Assyria came against the land: and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that his hand might be with him to confirm the kingdom in his hand. 2 Kings (15:19)

And Menahem exacted the money of Israel, even of all the mighty men of wealth, of each man fifty shekels of silver, to give to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria turned back, and stayed not there in the land. 2 Kings (15:20)

In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah, and Jonoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria. 2 Kings (15:29)

So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, saying, I am thy servant and thy son: come up, and save me out of the hand of the king of Syria, and out of the hand of the king of Israel, which rise up against me. 2 Kings (16:7)

And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasures of the king's house, and sent it for a present to the king of Assyria. 2 Kings (16:8)

And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin. 2 Kings (16:9)

And king Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and saw an altar that was at Damascus: and king Ahaz sent to Urijah the priest the fashion of the altar, and the pattern of it, according to all the workmanship thereof. 2 Kings (16:10)

And the covert for the sabbath that they had built in the house, and the king's entry without, turned he from the house of the LORD for the king of Assyria. 2 Kings (16:18)

Against him came up Shalmaneser king of Assyria; and Hoshea became his servant, and gave him presents. 2 Kings (17:3)

And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison. 2 Kings (17:4)

Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years. 2 Kings (17:5)

In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. 2 Kings (17:6)

Until the LORD removed Israel out of his sight, as he had said by all his servants the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day. 2 Kings (17:23)

And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof. 2 Kings (17:24)

Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria, saying, The nations which thou hast removed, and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land: therefore he hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay them, because they know not the manner of the God of the land. 2 Kings (17:26)

Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying, Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land. 2 Kings (17:27)

And the LORD was with him; and he prospered whithersoever he went forth: and he rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not. 2 Kings (18:7)

And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Hezekiah, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it. 2 Kings (18:9)

And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel unto Assyria, and put them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes: 2 Kings (18:11)

Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them. 2 Kings (18:13)

And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish, saying, I have offended; return from me: that which thou puttest on me will I bear. And the king of Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold. 2 Kings (18:14)

At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of the LORD, and from the pillars which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of Assyria. 2 Kings (18:16)

And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris and Rab-shakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is in the highway of the fuller's field. 2 Kings (18:17)

And Rab-shakeh said unto them, Speak ye now to Hezekiah, Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria, What confidence is this wherein thou trustest? 2 Kings (18:19)

Now therefore, I pray thee, give pledges to my lord the king of Assyria, and I will deliver thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them. 2 Kings (18:23)

Then Rab-shakeh stood and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and spake, saying, Hear the word of the great king, the king of Assyria: 2 Kings (18:28)

Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD, saying, The LORD will surely deliver us, and this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria. 2 Kings (18:30)

Hearken not to Hezekiah: for thus saith the king of Assyria, Make an agreement with me by a present, and come out to me, and then eat ye every man of his own vine, and every one of his fig tree, and drink ye every one the waters of his cistern: 2 Kings (18:31)

Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered at all his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria? 2 Kings (18:33)

It may be the LORD thy God will hear all the words of Rab-shakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God; and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that are left. 2 Kings (19:4)

And Isaiah said unto them, Thus shall ye say to your master, Thus saith the LORD, Be not afraid of the words which thou hast heard, with which the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed me. 2 Kings (19:6)

So Rab-shakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah: for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish. 2 Kings (19:8)

Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria. 2 Kings (19:10)

Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands, by destroying them utterly: and shalt thou be delivered? 2 Kings (19:11)

Of a truth, LORD, the kings of Assyria have destroyed the nations and their lands, 2 Kings (19:17)

Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent to Hezekiah, saying, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, That which thou hast prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria I have heard. 2 Kings (19:20)

Therefore thus saith the LORD concerning the king of Assyria, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shield, nor cast a bank against it. 2 Kings (19:32)

And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses. 2 Kings (19:35)

So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh. 2 Kings (19:36)

And I will add unto thy days fifteen years; and I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria; and I will defend this city for mine own sake, and for my servant David's sake. 2 Kings (20:6)

In his days Pharaoh-nechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him. 2 Kings (23:29)

Beerah his son, whom Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria carried away captive: he was prince of the Reubenites. 1 Chronicles (5:6)

And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day. 1 Chronicles (5:26)

At that time did king Ahaz send unto the kings of Assyria to help him. 2 Chronicles (28:16)

And Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria came unto him, and distressed him, but strengthened him not. 2 Chronicles (28:20)

For Ahaz took away a portion out of the house of the LORD, and out of the house of the king, and of the princes, and gave it unto the king of Assyria: but he helped him not. 2 Chronicles (28:21)

So the posts went with the letters from the king and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah, and according to the commandment of the king, saying, Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and he will return to the remnant of you, that are escaped out of the hand of the kings of Assyria. 2 Chronicles (30:6)

After these things, and the establishment thereof, Sennacherib king of Assyria came, and entered into Judah, and encamped against the fenced cities, and thought to win them for himself. 2 Chronicles (32:1)

So there was gathered much people together, who stopped all the fountains, and the brook that ran through the midst of the land, saying, Why should the kings of Assyria come, and find much water? 2 Chronicles (32:4)

Be strong and courageous, be not afraid nor dismayed for the king of Assyria, nor for all the multitude that is with him: for there be more with us than with him: 2 Chronicles (32:7)

After this did Sennacherib king of Assyria send his servants to Jerusalem, (but he himself laid siege against Lachish, and all his power with him,) unto Hezekiah king of Judah, and unto all Judah that were at Jerusalem, saying, 2 Chronicles (32:9)

Thus saith Sennacherib king of Assyria, Whereon do ye trust, that ye abide in the siege in Jerusalem? 2 Chronicles (32:10)

Doth not Hezekiah persuade you to give over yourselves to die by famine and by thirst, saying, The LORD our God shall deliver us out of the hand of the king of Assyria? 2 Chronicles (32:11)

And the LORD sent an angel, which cut off all the mighty men of valour, and the leaders and captains in the camp of the king of Assyria. So he returned with shame of face to his own land. And when he was come into the house of his god, they that came forth of his own bowels slew him there with the sword. 2 Chronicles (32:21)

Thus the LORD saved Hezekiah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem from the hand of Sennacherib the king of Assyria, and from the hand of all other, and guided them on every side. 2 Chronicles (32:22)

Wherefore the LORD brought upon them the captains of the host of the king of Assyria, which took Manasseh among the thorns, and bound him with fetters, and carried him to Babylon. 2 Chronicles (33:11)

And kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with joy: for the LORD had made them joyful, and turned the heart of the king of Assyria unto them, to strengthen their hands in the work of the house of God, the God of Israel. Ezra (6:22)

Now therefore, our God, the great, the mighty, and the terrible God, who keepest covenant and mercy, let not all the trouble seem little before thee, that hath come upon us, on our kings, on our princes, and on our priests, and on our prophets, and on our fathers, and on all thy people, since the time of the kings of Assyria unto this day. Nehemiah (9:32)

The LORD shall bring upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house, days that have not come, from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah; even the king of Assyria. Isaiah (7:17)

And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria. Isaiah (7:18)

In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, namely, by them beyond the river, by the king of Assyria, the head, and the hair of the feet: and it shall also consume the beard. Isaiah (7:20)

For before the child shall have knowledge to cry, My father, and my mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria shall be taken away before the king of Assyria. Isaiah (8:4)

Now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks: Isaiah (8:7)

O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation. Isaiah (10:5)

Wherefore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed his whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks. Isaiah (10:12)

Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts, O my people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt. Isaiah (10:24)

And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. Isaiah (11:11)

And there shall be an highway for the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria; like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt. Isaiah (11:16)

That I will break the Assyrian in my land, and upon my mountains tread him under foot: then shall his yoke depart from off them, and his burden depart from off their shoulders. Isaiah (14:25)

In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians. Isaiah (19:23)

In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land: Isaiah (19:24)

Whom the LORD of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance. Isaiah (19:25)

In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod, (when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took it; Isaiah (20:1)

So shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners, and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot, even with their buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt. Isaiah (20:4)

And the inhabitant of this isle shall say in that day, Behold, such is our expectation, whither we flee for help to be delivered from the king of Assyria: and how shall we escape? Isaiah (20:6)

Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people was not, till the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness: they set up the towers thereof, they raised up the palaces thereof; and he brought it to ruin. Isaiah (23:13)

And it shall come to pass in that day, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall worship the LORD in the holy mount at Jerusalem. Isaiah (27:13)

For through the voice of the LORD shall the Assyrian be beaten down, which smote with a rod. Isaiah (30:31)

Then shall the Assyrian fall with the sword, not of a mighty man; and the sword, not of a mean man, shall devour him: but he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall be discomfited. Isaiah (31:8)

Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the defenced cities of Judah, and took them. Isaiah (36:1)

And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field. Isaiah (36:2)

And Rabshakeh said unto them, Say ye now to Hezekiah, Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria, What confidence is this wherein thou trustest? Isaiah (36:4)

Now therefore give pledges, I pray thee, to my master the king of Assyria, and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them. Isaiah (36:8)

Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and said, Hear ye the words of the great king, the king of Assyria. Isaiah (36:13)

Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD, saying, The LORD will surely deliver us: this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria. Isaiah (36:15)

Hearken not to Hezekiah: for thus saith the king of Assyria, Make an agreement with me by a present, and come out to me: and eat ye every one of his vine, and every one of his fig tree, and drink ye every one the waters of his own cistern; Isaiah (36:16)

Beware lest Hezekiah persuade you, saying, The LORD will deliver us. Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria? Isaiah (36:18)

It may be the LORD thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God, and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that is left. Isaiah (37:4)

And Isaiah said unto them, Thus shall ye say unto your master, Thus saith the LORD, Be not afraid of the words that thou hast heard, wherewith the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed me. Isaiah (37:6)

So Rabshakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah: for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish. Isaiah (37:8)

Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God, in whom thou trustest, deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria. Isaiah (37:10)

Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands by destroying them utterly; and shalt thou be delivered? Isaiah (37:11)

Of a truth, LORD, the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the nations, and their countries, Isaiah (37:18)

Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent unto Hezekiah, saying, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Whereas thou hast prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria: Isaiah (37:21)

Therefore thus saith the LORD concerning the king of Assyria, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there nor come before it with shields, nor cast a bank against it. Isaiah (37:33)

Then the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses. Isaiah (37:36)

So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh. Isaiah (37:37)

And I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria: and I will defend this city. Isaiah (38:6)

For thus saith the Lord GOD, My people went down aforetime into Egypt to sojourn there; and the Assyrian oppressed them without cause. Isaiah (52:4)

And now what hast thou to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of Sihor? or what hast thou to do in the way of Assyria, to drink the waters of the river? Jeremiah (2:18)

Why gaddest thou about so much to change thy way? thou also shalt be ashamed of Egypt, as thou wast ashamed of Assyria. Jeremiah (2:36)

Israel is a scattered sheep; the lions have driven him away: first the king of Assyria hath devoured him; and last this Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones. Jeremiah (50:17)

Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will punish the king of Babylon and his land, as I have punished the king of Assyria. Jeremiah (50:18)

We have given the hand to the Egyptians, and to the Assyrians, to be satisfied with bread. Lamentations (5:6)

Thou hast played the whore also with the Assyrians, because thou wast unsatiable; yea, thou hast played the harlot with them, and yet couldest not be satisfied. Ezekiel (16:28)

And Aholah played the harlot when she was mine; and she doted on her lovers, on the Assyrians her neighbours, Ezekiel (23:5)

Thus she committed her whoredoms with them, with all them that were the chosen men of Assyria, and with all on whom she doted: with all their idols she defiled herself. Ezekiel (23:7)

Wherefore I have delivered her into the hand of her lovers, into the hand of the Assyrians, upon whom she doted. Ezekiel (23:9)

She doted upon the Assyrians her neighbours, captains and rulers clothed most gorgeously, horsemen riding upon horses, all of them desirable young men. Ezekiel (23:12)

The Babylonians, and all the Chaldeans, Pekod, and Shoa, and Koa, and all the Assyrians with them: all of them desirable young men, captains and rulers, great lords and renowned, all of them riding upon horses. Ezekiel (23:23)

Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs. Ezekiel (31:3)

When Ephraim saw his sickness, and Judah saw his wound, then went Ephraim to the Assyrian, and sent to king Jareb: yet could he not heal you, nor cure you of your wound. Daniel (5:13)

Ephraim also is like a silly dove without heart: they call to Egypt, they go to Assyria. Daniel (7:11)

For they are gone up to Assyria, a wild ass alone by himself: Ephraim hath hired lovers. Daniel (8:9)

They shall not dwell in the LORD's land; but Ephraim shall return to Egypt, and they shall eat unclean things in Assyria. Daniel (9:3)

It shall be also carried unto Assyria for a present to king Jareb: Ephraim shall receive shame, and Israel shall be ashamed of his own counsel. Daniel (10:6)

He shall not return into the land of Egypt, but the Assyrian shall be his king, because they refused to return. Daniel (11:5)

They shall tremble as a bird out of Egypt, and as a dove out of the land of Assyria: and I will place them in their houses, saith the LORD. Daniel (11:11)

Ephraim feedeth on wind, and followeth after the east wind: he daily increaseth lies and desolation; and they do make a covenant with the Assyrians, and oil is carried into Egypt. Daniel (12:1)

Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me. Jonah (1:2)

Arise, go unto Nineveh, that great city, and preach unto it the preaching that I bid thee. Jonah (3:2)

So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days' journey. Jonah (3:3)

And Jonah began to enter into the city a day's journey, and he cried, and said, Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown. Jonah (3:4)

So the people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least of them. Jonah (3:5)

For word came unto the king of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, and he laid his robe from him, and covered him with sackcloth, and sat in ashes. Jonah (3:6)

And he caused it to be proclaimed and published through Nineveh by the decree of the king and his nobles, saying, Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste any thing: let them not feed, nor drink water: Jonah (3:7)

And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and also much cattle? Jonah (4:11)

And this man shall be the peace, when the Assyrian shall come into our land: and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight principal men. Micah (5:5)

And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders. Micah (5:6)

In that day also he shall come even to thee from Assyria, and from the fortified cities, and from the fortress even to the river, and from sea to sea, and from mountain to mountain. Micah (7:12)

Thy shepherds slumber, O king of Assyria: thy nobles shall dwell in the dust: thy people is scattered upon the mountains, and no man gathereth them. Nahum (3:18)

The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite. Nahum (1:1)

But Nineveh is of old like a pool of water: yet they shall flee away. Stand, stand, shall they cry; but none shall look back. Nahum (2:8)

And it shall come to pass, that all they that look upon thee shall flee from thee, and say, Nineveh is laid waste: who will bemoan her? whence shall I seek comforters for thee? Nahum (3:7)

And he will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria; and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness. Zephaniah (2:13)

I will bring them again also out of the land of Egypt, and gather them out of Assyria; and I will bring them into the land of Gilead and Labanon; and place shall not be found for them. Zechariah (10:10)

And he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and shall smite the waves in the sea, and all the deeps of the river shall dry up: and the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away. Zechariah (10:11)

The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here. Matthew (12:41)

Assyrian Organizations

Assyrian Cutural Center of Bet-Nahrain
P.O.BOX 4116
Modesto, CA 95352
USA

Phone: (209) 538-4130
Fax: (209) 538-2795
Url: www.betnahrain.org
E-mail: kbsv@aol.com
Assyrian Academic Society
8324 N Lincoln
Skokie, IL 60077
USA

Phone: (847) 982-5800
Fax:
Url: www.aas.net
E-mail: info@aas.net
Yonkers Assyrian American Association
82 Ludlow Street
Yonkers, NY 10705
USA

Phone: (914) 423-6509
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American National Federation
150 Boyken
Rochester Hills, MI 48307
USA

Phone: (248) 495-5432
Fax:
Url: www.aanf.org
E-mail:
Chaldean Assyrian Syriac Council of America, Inc
30095 Northwestern HWY, Suite 102
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
USA

Phone: (248) 538-3700
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Chaldean Syriac Cultural Center
8324 N Lincoln
Skokie, IL 60077
USA

Phone: (847) 982-5800
Fax:
Url: www.aas.net
E-mail: info@aas.net
Assyrian Presbyterian Church of San Jose
P.O.BOX 24015
San Jose, CA 95154
USA

Phone: (408) 910-4316
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Club of Arizona, Inc
6635 W Happy Valley Rd.
Glendale, AZ 85310
USA

Phone:
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American Foundation of Arizona, Inc
6635 W Happy Valley Rd.
Glendale, AZ 85310
USA

Phone: (602) 410-9555
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Pentecostal Church of San Jose
675 Gish Road
San Jose, CA 95112
USA

Phone: (408) 324-3585
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Dairbakir Turabdin Assyrian Association
430 Gotham Parkway
Carlestadt, NJ
USA

Phone: (201) 964-9770
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Universal Alliance Foundation
7055 N Clark Street
Chicago, IL 60625
USA

Phone: (773) 546-9112
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian National Council of Illinois
2450 W. Peterson Ave.
Chicago, IL 60659
USA

Phone: (773) 262-5589
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Social Club
6313 N Pulaski Rd.
Chicago, IL 60646
USA

Phone: (773) 478-8808
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Athletic Club of Illinois
3034 W Devon, Suite 105
Chicago, IL 60659
USA

Phone: (773) 973-6004
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American Association of Chicago
1618 W Devon
Chicago, IL 60660
USA

Phone: (773) 338-9322
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Armenian Cultural Center
3309 Inverness Street
Modesto, CA 95355
USA

Phone: (209) 551-3100
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American Association of San Jose
P.O.BOX 41311
San Jose, CA 95160
USA

Phone: (408) 519-5010
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Church of the East
P.O.BOX 41025
San Jose, CA 95160
USA

Phone: (408) 891-7152
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian United Organization
P.O.BOX 901
Ceres, CA 95307
USA

Phone: (209) 526-8631
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Club of Urhai, Inc
P.O.BOX 577762
Modesto, CA 95357
USA

Phone: (209) 526-8631
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American Athletic Club of Modesto
P.O.BOX 579656
Modesto, CA 95357
USA

Phone:
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American Association of Modesto
P.O.BOX 577996
Modesto, CA 95357
USA

Phone: (209) 526-8631
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Chaldean Catholic Church
109 N. First Street
Campbell, CA 95008
USA

Phone: (408) 368-6212
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American Civic Club of Turlock
P.O.BOX 192
Turlock, CA 95381
USA

Phone: (209) 668-4668
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Aid Society of America, Inc.
350 Berkeley Park Blvd.
Berkeley, CA 94707
USA

Phone: (510) 763-4880
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Foundation of America
P.O.BOX 2620
Berkeley, CA 94702
USA

Phone:
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American Association of Southern California
5901 Cahuenga Blvd.
North Hollywood, CA 91601
USA

Phone: (818) 506-7577
Fax:
Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian American Benevolent Association of California, Inc
2900 W. Verdugo Ave.
Burbank, CA 91505
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian American Association of Massachusetts, Inc
19 Orono St
Milton, MA
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Marzaia Assyrian Originzation
9201 N 29th Ave Ste 63 Pmb 409
Phoenix, AZ 85051
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
United Assyrian Association Of Massachusetts, Inc
55 Prentiss St
Watertown, MA
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Childrens Fund
2932 25th Ave.
W Seattle, WA 98199
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Orthodox Church Of Virgin Mary
644 Paramus Rd #644
Paramus, NJ
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Orphanage And School Association Of America Inc
644 Paramus Rd.
Paramus, NJ
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Catholic Apostolic Diocese
51 Shearer Dr
Atherton, CA 94027
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Valentine Fund Inc
5518 Stoney Creek Pl
San Jose, CA 95138
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Medical Society
16055 Ventura Blvd., Ste 1225
Encino, CA 91436
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian-American Chamber Of Commerce Of California
213 West G St., Ste 101
Ontario, CA 91762
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian American Welfare Council of Chicago
6451 N Whipple St.,
Chicago, IL 60645
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Heritage Organization
3418 W Bryn Mawr Ave.
Chicago, IL 60659
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian American Club of Flint
5295 Mill Wheel Dr.
Grand Blanc, MI 48439
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Cemetery of Flint Michigan, Inc
2103 Rollins St.
Grand Blanc, MI 48439
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian American Police Organization
6600 N Lincoln Ave., Ste 200
Lincolnwood, IL 60712
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian For Education
1350 Arnold Dr., Ste 202
Martinez, CA 94553
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian American Association of Houston, Inc
16947 Cairnloch St.
Houston, TX 77084
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
St Marys Holy Church Assyrian - Aramaic Education Resource Center
4725 Heather Hills Ln.
Oakdale, CA 95361
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Pentecostal Church
P.O.BOX 2667
Turlock, CA 95381
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Evangelical Church of San Jose
P.O.BOX 23024
San Jose, CA 95153
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian American Aid Association
P.O.BOX 577068
Modesto, CA 95357
USA

Phone:
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Url:
E-mail:
Assyrian Philharmonic and Fine Arts Society
4190 Leigh Ave.
San Jose, CA 95124
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
The Universal Assyrian Mar Zaia Organization
P.O.BOX 577451
Modesto, CA 95357
USA

Phone:
Fax:
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E-mail:
Fund For Modern Assyrian Studies
102 Rametto Rd.
Santa Barbara, CA 93108
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian National Council of Stanislaus
P.O.BOX 3534
Turlock, CA 95381
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian American Society of Las Vegas
2725 Tidewater Ct.
Las Vegas, NV 89117
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyrian Church of Nineveh Pentacostal
14657 Tupper St.
Panorama City, CA 91402
USA

Phone:
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E-mail:
Assyriska Ungdomsförbundet i Sverige
Wallingatan 34, 4 tr.
Stockholm,
Sweden

Phone: 08-550 180 17
Fax: 08-550 180 33
Url:
E-mail: kansliet@auf.nu
Assyriska Ungdomsförbundet
Box 6067
Södertälje ,
Sweden

Phone: 08-550 180 17
Fax: 08-550 180 33
Url: www.auf.nu
E-mail: info@auf.nu
Assyrische Mesopotamische Vereniging Enschede
De Reulver 112a
7544 RT Enschede,


Phone: +31 53 4766873
Fax: +31 53 4366505
Url: www.bethnahrin.nl
E-mail: info@bethnahrin.nl
Association des Assyro-Chaldéens de France
11 rue du Temple
95 200 Sarcelles,


Phone: +33 1 39 90 87 11
Fax: +33 1 34 19 84 72
Url:
E-mail:
American Mesopotamian Organization
25379 Wayne Mills Place, Suite 345
Santa Clarita, CA 91355
Santa Clarita

Phone: (323) 454-2237
Fax: (323) 285-5596
Url: www.americanmesopotamian.org
E-mail: americanmesopotamian@gmail.com

Assyrian Websites

Website URL
Assyrian Market - AssyriaTimes  astore.amazon.com/ashur-20
Hannibal Alkhas  hannibal-alkhas.org
Alen Eelias  alenelias.com
Almahatta  almahatta.net
Assyrian Church - Australia  assyrianchurch.org.au
Assyrian Church - Russia  assyrianchurch.ru
Assyrian Levies  assyrianlevies.info
Assyrian Market  assyrianmarket.com
Assyrian Democratic Organization  en.ado-world.org
Lishani  lishani.com
Ludmila Khoshaba  ludmilakhoshaba.com
Assyrian Church News  news.assyrianchurch.org
Nina Baresso  ninabaresso.com
Nineveh Project  ninevehproject.org
Nohra  nohra.ca
St Hurmizd Assyrian Primary School  shaps.nsw.edu.au
Syriac Orthodox Resources  sor.cua.edu
Assyrian Cultural Center of Bet-Nahrain  betnahrain.org
Ankawa  ankawa.com
Assyria Council of Europe  assyriacouncil.eu
Assyria Game Studio  assyria-game.com
Assyrian4All  assyrian4all.net
Assyrian Aid Society  assyrianaid.org
Assyrian American Coalition  assyrianamericancoalition.org
Assyrian Cafe  assyriancafe.com
Assyrian Church - Europe  assyrianchurch-europe.org
Assyrian Church- Vienna  assyrianchurch-vienna.at
Assyrian Cupid  assyriancupid.com
Assyrian Foundation of America  assyrianfoundation.org
Assyrian General Conference  assyriangc.com
Assyrian Resource Centre - Assyrian Australian Association  assyrianrc.com
Assyrian Rights  assyrianrights.org
Assyrian Youth Media in Denmark  assyrians.dk
Assyrians Online  assyrians-online.org
Assyrian Star Football Club  assyrianstar.net
Assyrian Voice  assyrianvoice.net
AssyriaTimes News Agency  assyriatimes.com
Assyria TV  assyriatv.org
Assyrian Foundation of Nederlan (Stichting Assyrie Nederlan)  assyrie.nl
Atour  atour.com
Atra News  atranews.com
...عکسهای من  ...عکسهای من
Mily's Cosmetic & Art Nails  Mily's Cosmetic & Art Nails
Assyrian International News Agency  aina.org
4 Ever Makeup by Linda  4 Ever Makeup by Linda
Assyrier Utan Gränser (Assyrier Utan Gränser)  awbswe.se
Beth Mardutho The Syriac Institute  bethmardutho.org
BethNahrin  bethnahrin.nl
BethSuryoyo  bethsuryoyo.com
BonaBata  bonabata.com
Assyrian Calligraphy by Issa Benyamin  calligram.com
Church of the East - India  churchoftheeastindia.org
Emil Baddal's Portfolio  emilbadal.com
Evin Agassi  evin-agassi.com
Fred Aprim  fredaprim.com
Hujada Maganize  hujada.com
Iraqi Christians In Need  icin.org.uk
Iraq Sustainable Democracy Project  iraqdemocracyproject.org
KoleSuryoye  kolesuryoye.nl
Learn Assyrian  learnassyrian.com
Mar Narsai Assyrian College - Australia  mnac.nsw.edu.au
Nestorian  nestorian.org
Nineveh  nineveh.com
Nishra Music  nishramusic.com
Nohadra Book  nohadra.com
Nordirak Turabdin  nordirak-turabdin.info
Syriac Assyrian Academics in Sweden  saais.org
Assyrian Genocide Research Center (SeyfoCenter)  seyfocenter.com
Shlama  shlama.be
Syriac Studies  syriacstudies.com
Assyrian Athletic Club of Toronto  torontowingedbull.com
Tree of Life  treeoflifedecode.com
Assyriskas Officiella Supporterklubb (Zelge)  zelge.com
Zinda Magazine  zindamagazine.com
Assyrian Democratic Movement (ADM)  zowaa.org
Assyrian Universal Alliance (AUA)  aua.net
Christians of Iraq  christiansofiraq.com
Assyrian Recipes  assyrianrecipes.com
Dukhrana Biblical Research  dukhrana.com
Assyrian TV  assyriantv.net
Nohadra Radio - Australia  nohadraradio.com
Assyrians Rradio  assyriansradio.com
Assyrian TV Repair Services  www.facebook.com/DigitechElectronics
Bahra et Bet-Nahrain  bahra.synthasite.com
Nishra Store  www.nishrastore.com
M1Media Productions www.m1media.com.au
Hollywood Connections Center www.hollywoodconnectionscenter.com
Hollywood Connections Center on Facebook www.facebook.com/pages/Hollywood-Connections-Center/205501286151091
We Are Assyria Films www.weareassyriafilms.com
Victor Davoody www.victordavoody.com
Ninos Aho www.ninosaho.com
qeenatha.com Where Assyrian Music Starts http://www.qeenatha.com/
shlama shlama.be
Assyrian Hakkari and Bohtan https://www.facebook.com/AssyrianHakkari
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